John is a 64 year old male who has developed a post-operative wound following a total hip replacement. John was well prior to surgery and has a history of high cholesterol, which he manages with a good diet. His wound is red, swollen, warm and painful. He also has a fever and feels generally unwell. John is given a broad spectrum antibiotic while waiting for the results on a wound culture. He subsequently experiences an anaphylactic reaction after the second dose of anti-biotics.
1.Discuss 3 factors that influence a pathogens ability to cause infection in relation to johns case specifically (ie. Mechanisms of action, virulence, infects its, toxigenicity, immunogenicity. Any 3).
2. Discuss innate immunity and analyse how John was able to develop an infection in the presence of a normal immune system.
3. Create a detailed diagram (can be from our text book if referenced), outlining the patho physiological process of inflammation that led to the manifestations of redness, swelling, pain and warmth at johns wound site.
4. Considering the adaptive immune response, outline why John DID NOT show signs of an allergic reaction when given his FIRST dose of antibiotics.