The nature of the message as it relates to your temperament

1. With respect to the fundamental attribution error, it turns out that in other cultures, like those of Asia,

there’s a/an _______ orientation to others that emphasizes interdependence.

A. individualistic

B. philosophical

C. collectivist

D. intrapersonal

2. The more people there are at the scene of an accident, the less likely it is that individuals will step up to

lend a hand. This phenomenon is referred to as

A. diffusion of interest.

B. antisocial behavior.

C. diffusion of responsibility.

D. crowd apathy.

3. According to your text, whether you’re persuaded by a message will primarily depend on which factor?

A. Your characteristics, including your personality and intelligence

B. Your perception or understanding of the recipient of the message

C. Whether you receive the message while at work or at home

D. The nature of the message as it relates to your temperament

4. In the “teacher-learner” experiments conducted by Stanley Milgram, ______ percent of the experimental

subjects eventually applied the “lethal” 450-volt shock to the “learner.”

A. 35

B. 15

C. 2

D. 65

5. As discussed in your textbook, the Implicit Association Test (IAT)

A. requires subjects to react to a series of black and white faces.

B. is based on a culture-free questionnaire.

C. has revealed that most people aren’t prejudiced.

D. requires people to openly express and reveal their latent prejudices.6. Jason and Julia are preparing for a quiz in Psychology 101. Jason recites four reasons for seeking out a

social support network. Julia, who has top grades in the class, gives her nod of approval to all but one of

Jason’s list. Which one is she most likely to reject?

A. Group members can help a participant with practical things like finding a new job.

B. Being a member of a social support network can help reduce a person’s stress levels.

C. Being in a social support network helps a person learn how to win arguments.

D. Support group membership can help a participant feel valued by others.

7. Mandy has decided that she has no control over the aversive stimuli she encounters at work and at home

day by day. Thus, she has given up trying to make her life better. Psychologists would say Mandy’s

worldview illustrates

A. emotion-focused coping.

B. problem-focused coping.

C. learned avoidant coping.

D. learned helplessness.

8. A popular talk show host, jovial and sharp-witted as usual, outlines his views on the death penalty,

taking time to consider both sides of the issue. As a long-time listener to that talk show, if you’re swayed to

adopt the talk-show host’s point of view, it will probably be due to

A. your temperament and character.

B. the character of the message.

C. your tendency to employ peripheral route processing.

D. the medium of the message (radio).

9. Four steps are involved in a person’s decision to offer assistance in an emergency situation. The third

step is

A. deciding how to help.

B. appraisal of one’s skills and experience in dealing with emergencies.

C. interpreting the event as requiring someone to offer assistance.

D. assuming responsibility for rendering assistance.

10. The last stage in the GAS model of stress is

A. adaptation.

B. exhaustion.

C. flight or fight.

D. resistance.

11. In the context of stress, the flip side of an uplift is

A. any cataclysmic event.

B. background chaos.

C. a hassle.

D. a personal stressor.12. Particular factors encourage people to be drawn into liking one another. In this context, the reciprocity

of liking effect is primarily associated with

A. similarity.

B. physical attractiveness.

C. exposure.

D. propinquity.

13. The foot-in-the-door technique and the that’s-not-all technique are persuasive tactics for gaining

A. compliance.

B. reciprocity.

C. obedience.

D. conformity.

14. The concept of aggression cues is associated with

A. the work of animal behaviorist Konrad Lorenz.

B. frustration-aggression theory.

C. observational learning theories.

D. social learning theories.

15. Which statement best expresses the concept of the self-serving bias?

A. We assume that situational causes are brought about by the environment.

B. We tend to think other people are similar to us, even when we first meet them.

C. We nearly always assume that other people’s failures are due to their personal characteristics.

D. We attribute our successes to our skills and abilities and our failures to external factors.

16. The first stage in the GAS model of stress is

A. adaptation.

B. analyzing a stressor.

C. alarm and mobilization.

D. resistance.

17. In general, the approach to stress embraced by psychoneuroimmunologists focuses on

A. psychological factors and the immune system.

B. the outcomes of stress.

C. the brain and the immune system.

D. the brain and the body.

18. According to Sternberg, intimacy plus decision/commitment identifies

A. fatuous love.

B. liking.

C. companionate love.

D. true friendship.End of exam

19. In respect to the foundations of prejudice, social identity theory is associated with the concept of

A. ethnocentrism.

B. modern racism.

C. self-fulfilling prophecy.

D. stereotypical discrimination.

20. On first meeting Ian Campbell from Edinburgh, Clark Mason, a native of Seattle, immediately decides

that he and Ian have similar attitudes, feelings, and worldviews. Psychologists say this sort of thing

illustrates the

A. fundamental attribution error.

B. “birds of a feather” error.

C. assumed-similarity bias.

D. self-serving bias.


1. All of the following are valid methods of coping with stress except for

A. blue lining.

B. eustress.

C. changing your goals.

D. learned helplessness.

2. The scientific method involves

A. theories and operational definitions as well as hypotheses and research.

B. hypotheses and research.

C. theories and operational definitions.

D. neither theories and operational definitions nor hypotheses and research.

3. Pavlov’s classical conditioning experiment involved conditioned response, unconditioned response,

_______, and _______.

A. neutral stimulus; distinction

B. neutral response; distinction

C. neutral response; extinction

D. neutral stimulus; extinction

4. To be considered obese, a person must be _______ percent above the average weight for a person of

his/her height.

A. 40

B. 10

C. 20

D. 30

5. How often is the following statement true? To successfully conduct experimental research, it’s important

to have signed informed consents from participants.

A. The statement is false.

B. The statement is true occasionally.

C. The statement is true most of the time.

D. The statement is always true.6. All of the following are examples of types of influences we encounter except

A. obedience.

B. compliance.

C. conformity.

D. schema.

7. Bandura’s Bobo Doll experiment demonstrated

A. obedience.

B. observational learning.

C. ethnocentricity.

D. social identity.

8. Behavioral therapy would employ all of the following treatment techniques except

A. meditation.

B. exposure treatment.

C. systematic desensitization.

D. aversive conditioning.

9. Insomnia affects approximately _______ percent of people and nearly _______ million people suffer

from sleep apnea.

A. 10; 20

B. 30; 10

C. 30; 20

D. 20; 30

10. Smoking even though you know there is a great chance of getting cancer is a good example of

A. schema.

B. social cognition.

C. cognitive dissonance.

D. attribution theory.

11. The textbook discusses the DSM-IV TR. What does that mean?

A. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Transfers

B. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Text Revision

C. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Dementia, Fourth Edition Text Revision

D. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Dementia, Fourth Edition Transfers

12. Alissa and Allen are discussing Freudian defense mechanisms. Alissa says both repression and

regression are Freudian defense mechanisms, while Allen insists sublimation is one as well. Who is correct?

A. Only Allen is correct.

B. Both Alissa and Allen are correct.

C. Only Alissa is correct.D. Neither Alissa nor Allen is correct.

13. The somatic division links the brain to

A. the heart.

B. the liver.

C. the spinal cord.

D. the kidneys.

14. If you believe that the body is a machine and will eventually stop working efficiently, you believe in the

_______ theory.

A. wear-and-tear theory

B. genetic preprogramming theory

C. second shift theory

D. disengagement theory

15. The endocrine system is a chemical communication system that sends messages throughout the body

via the

A. bloodstream.

B. nerves.

C. glands.

D. hormones.

16. Sabrina, Ali, and Jasmine are discussing the differences between central route processing and peripheral

route processing. Jasmine believes that peripheral route processing is what results when a person

thoughtfully considers the issues and arguments involved in a persuasive argument. Ali says central route

processing is when a person is persuaded by factors irrelevant or extraneous to the issue. Sabrina insists

they’ve both got the definitions mixed up. Who is correct?

A. Sabrina

B. Jasmine

C. Sabrina and Ali

D. Ali and Jasmine

17. Common childhood disorders include all of the following except


B. autism.

C. schizophrenia.

D. dyslexia.

18. A newly formed cell caused by the union of an egg and sperm is called a/am

A. embryo.

B. fetus.

C. zygote.

D. chromozone.End of exam

19. The James–Lange theory says that emotional experience is a reaction to

A. both physiological arousal and emotional experience as well as nerve stimuli.

B. a combination of nonspecific kinds of physiological arousal and its interpretations.

C. bodily events occurring as a result of an external situation.

D. a combination of bodily events occurring as a result of external situation and physiological arousal and emotional experience.

20. All of the following are common changes that occur in adulthood except

A. menopause.

B. life reviews.

C. midlife transitions.

D. divorce.

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