Psychology homework help
Creative thinking involves calling into question the assumptions underlying our customary, habitual ways of thinking and acting and then being ready to think and act differently on the basis of the critical questioning.
Components of Critical Thinking
Identifying and challenging assumptions.
Recognizing the importance of context.
Imagining and exploring alternatives.
Developing reflective skepticism.
Consider rejecting standardized formats for problem solving.
Have an interest in a wide range of related and divergent fields.
Take multiple perspectives on a problem.
Use trial-and-error methods in their experimentation.
Have a future orientation.
Have self-confidence and trust in their own judgment.
Critical Thinking Involves
Recognizing underlying assumptions.
Judging the rationality of these justifications by comparing them to a range of varying interpretations and prospective.
Providing positive as well as negative appraisal.
THE SIX TYPES OF SOCRATIC QUESTIONS
Due to the rapid addition of new information and the advancement of science and technology that occur almost daily, an engineer must constantly expand his or her horizons beyond simple gathering information and relying on the basic engineering principles.
A number of homework problems have been included that are designed to enhance critical thinking skills. Critical thinking is the process we use to reflect on, access and judge the assumptions underlying our own and others ideas and actions.
Socratic questioning is at the heart of critical thinking and a number of homework problems draw from R.W. Paul’s six types of Socratic questions:
1. Questions for clarification:
· Why do you say that?
· How does this relate to our discussion?
· “Are you going to include diffusion in your mole balance equations?”
2. Questions that probe assumptions:
· What could we assume instead?
· How can you verify or disapprove that assumption?
· “Why are neglecting radial diffusion and including only axial diffusion?”
3. Questions that probe reasons and evidence:
· What would be an example?
· What is….analogous to?
· What do you think causes to happen…? Why:?
· “Do you think that diffusion is responsible for the lower conversion?”
4. Questions about Viewpoints and Perspectives:
· What would be an alternative?
· What is another way to look at it?
· Would you explain why it is necessary or beneficial, and who benefits?
· Why is the best?
· What are the strengths and weaknesses of…?
· How are…and …similar?
· What is a counterargument for…?
· “With all the bends in the pipe, from an industrial/practical standpoint, do you think diffusion will affect the conversion?”
5. Questions that probe implications and consequences:
· What generalizations can you make?
· What are the consequences of that assumption?
· What are you implying?
· How does…affect…?
· How does…tie in with what we learned before?
· “How would our results be affected if neglected diffusion?”
6. Questions about the question:
· What was the point of this question?
· Why do you think I asked this question?
· What does…mean?
· How does…apply to everyday life?
· “Why do you think diffusion is important?”
PHASES OF CRITICAL THINKING
1. Trigger Event
An unexpected happening that prompts a sense of inter-discomfort and perplexity
A period of self scrutinizing to identify and clarify the concern.
Search for ways to explain discrepancy of to live with them
4. Developing alternative perspectives.
Select those assumptions and activities that seem the most satisfactory and congruent.
Becoming comfortable with, and acting, on new ideas assumption and new ways of thinking
Critical Thinking Skills