Obsessive Compulsive, Trauma, Psychotic, and Personality Disorders and Psychometrics


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Obsessive Compulsive, Trauma, Psychotic, and Personality Disorders and Psychometrics

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Obsessive Compulsive, Trauma, Psychotic, and Personality Disorders and Psychometrics

Complete the following table by choosing four disorders from the DSM-5’s obsessive compulsive, trauma, psychotic, and personality disorders categories. Align your chosen disorders with the psychometric tests that may be used to assess them.

Psychological disorder DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for the psychological disorder Applicable psychometric test Description of the psychometric test (50–100 words each)
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is present by the following symptoms. Reoccurring thoughts and urges, or images that are experienced, at some time during the disturbance. Attempts to ignore or stop such thoughts that urges, or images to neutralizes with some other thoughts or actions by a compulsion. Repetitive behaviors e.g. handwashing, ordering, checking (Achim, Maziade, Raymond, et al, 2011). Brief Obsessive-compulsive Scale (BOCS), a self-rating measure for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), which has been around for a couple of decades and is widely used in Sweden. However, to begin an evidence – based assessment is used to rule out any other mental illness. It is stated that “obsessive–compulsive symptoms can be difficult to assess, given that they are often manifested internally, and individuals with OCD may not be inclined to recognize and report symptoms” (Rapp, A., Bergman, L., Piacentini, J., McGuire, J., 2016). We published an article describing the BOCS and its psychometric properties recently in the Nordic Journal of Psychiatry. 2 Brief Obsessive-Compulsive Scale consists of a 15-item Symptom Checklist including 3 items (hoarding disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, and no suicidal self-injury disorder) related to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) category “Obsessive-compulsive related disorders”, accompanied by a single 6-item severity scale for obsessions and compulsions combined. It encompasses the revisions made in the Yale-Brown Obsessive-compulsive Scale, Second Edition (Y-BOCS-II) severity scale by including obsessive-compulsive free intervals and extent of avoidance and excluding the resistance item (Beierot, Edman, Frisen, & Humble, 2017).
Catatonia Requires the presence of 3 or more of 12 psychomotor features: Stupor, catalepsy, mutism, waxy flexibility, negativism, posturing, mannerism, agitation not influenced by external stimuli, grimacing, echolalia, echopraxia. There are many causes for catatonia; mental disorders, Parkinson’s disease, PTSD, some medication withdrawals (APA, 2013). History and mental status exam, mental health evaluation/medical evaluation & assessments, Fibrin D-Dimer blood test, CT scan, MRI, Bush-Francis Catatonia Scale (BFCRS) Catatonia is associated with depressive disorders as well as can be caused by other issues and can be discovered through physical examination as well as CT Scans/MRI that allow the physician to see brain functioning as well as the blood test to check the levels-500 mg/ml catatonia is likely (Halverson, 2019).
Personality Disorder The DSM-5 defines personality disorder as an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the individual’s culture, is pervasive and inflexible, has an onset in adolescence or early adulthood, is stable overtime, and leads to distress or impairment (APA, 2013). The structured clinical interview can be used to diagnose the 10 different types of personality. Another type of that may be used is the MMPI-2. The structured clinical interview is used by using a questionnaire. This is a 119-item test that the individual will self-report the answers.

The MMPI-2 takes the individual a little under two hours to complete. This test consists of a 567 item test for self-reporting. This test is the most accurate test based on the individual’s answers (Drayton, 2009).

Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders are classified in terms of psychological symptoms and behaviors that emerge in response to an external event/stressor, which is a critical diagnostic condition. The DSM-V criteria for ASD is the presence of nine or more symptoms from five categories; Intrusion, negative Mood, Disassociation, Avoidance and arousal with the durations of disturbance three days to one month following the trauma (APA, 2013). The Acute Stress Disorder Interview (ASDI; Bryant, Harvey, Dang, & Sackville, 1998), Acute Stress Disorder Scale (ASDS; Bryant, Moulds, & Guthrie, 2000) The Acute Stress Disorder Interview (ASDI) is a 19-item instrument and is dichotomously scored with either 0 (equal to symptom absence) or 1 (equal to symptom presence). Summing positive responses provides a total score (range 1–19).

Acute Stress Disorder Scale (ASDS) is a 19-item, self-report inventory that indexes ASD and predicts PTSD. The ASDS includes 5 dissociative, 4 reexperiencing, 4 avoidance, and 6 arousal symptoms items. Respondents rate each item on a 5-point scale (1 = not at all to 5 = very much) and summing items provides “Total” and subscale scores (Pomeroy, 2014).

Respond to the following question in 150–175 words.

1. How are psychometric personality assessments used in evaluating psychopathology and personality? How do people with schizophrenia spectrum disorder perform on psychological tests?

There are many ways that a psychometric personality assessment can be used in evaluating psychopathology and personality. A few of these ways are through self – reporting assessments such as the 175-item true or false assessment known as the Million Clinical Multiaxial Inventory or the MCMI which is a self – reporting assessment which assesses personality characteristic, assess psychopathology as well as emotional adjustments. This assessment can be used for both diagnosis and character descriptions. Assessments such as this can assist the psychologist or counselor in making a diagnosis for the client. People with Schizophrenia spectrum disorder may perform poorly on psychological tests as their cognitive function is impaired. People who are diagnosed with Schizophrenia spectrum disorder may find it hard to focus or pay attention, hold poor executive functions such as the ability to understand information and use it to make decisions, issues with working memory and lacking the ability to use information immediately after learning it, and a slow processing speed.


Achim AM , Maziade M , Raymond E , et al: How prevalent are anxiety disorders in schizophrenia? A meta-analysis and critical review on a significant association. Schizophr Bull 37(4):811–821, 2011

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5(5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Bejerot, S., Edman, G., Frisén, L., & Humble, M. (2017). Evidence-Based Brief Obsessive-Compulsive Scale…Rapp AM, Bergman RL, Piacentini J et al. Evidence-Based Assessment of Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder. Journal of Central Nervous System Disease (J CENTRAL NERV SYST DIS), 2016; (8): 13-29. Journal of Central Nervous System Disease, (9), 1. https://doi.org/10.1177/1179573517702867

Drayton, M. (2009). The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2). Occupational Medicine, 59(2):135-136

Jerry L. Halverson, MD. Oct 07, 2019 What Are the DSM-5 Criteria for the Diagnosis the Depressive Episodes with Catatonia?


Pomeroy, E. (2014). The clinical assessment workbook: Balancing strengths and differential diagnosis (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

Rapp, A. M., Bergman, R. L., Piacentini, J., & McGuire, J. F. (2016). Evidence-Based Assessment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Journal of central nervous system disease8, 13–29. doi:10.4137/JCNSD.S38359

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