There is needs to be a separate response to each peer posting. The response needs to be supported with at least two references.
Ethical and Legal Issues:
Though there are processes in place, it can easily veer off course in regards to violating ethics and the law. The ACA Code of Ethics (2014) is based on the principles created to provide counselors parameters in dealing with their counseling work as well protecting those who they are trying to serve and abide ethical soundness and legal obligation. Contained in the Code of Ethics, counselors are expected to gain the information needed without causing detriment to those who participate or volunteer and be productive as well. Competence is based on knowing what how well you know your skills and how you utilize them. In dealing with the public, professionals should be respectful to those they are trying to serve, honest and accurate with the information that is being shared and competent in their abilities (ACA Code of Ethics, 2014 & AEA Guiding Principles for Evaluators, 2004). In working with a program dealing with grief, the evaluator should take in consideration the clientele that is participating the program. The people who seek our grief services come because they are need and in doing so, the information that is provided to the community it serves should be information that is truthful and founded. If the program is not working it should not be falsified just to be more appealing. Evaluators should be capable of doing evaluation effectively and have the qualifications to fulfill the task (AEA Guiding Principles for Evaluators, 2004). ACA Code of Ethics (2014) also maintains that professionals should not go beyond their capable and qualified limits. In evaluation of the grief program, in order to fully understand grief and what should be provided, the evaluator should be knowledgeable about how grief effects people and how to find resolution. Understanding this will help the evaluator know if the program can actually provide the service that it portrays it does as well as knowing what may be lacking. The participates in the program have a voice and the evaluator should take the time to investigate the allegations or concerns that may have arose. Evaluators should make the effort to learn the pros and cons that clients have find with in the program (AEA Guiding Principles for Evaluators, 2004). Each side should be explored with one side not having more weight than the other but as Royse, Thyer and Padgett (2016) maintains, sometimes the information that is supplied by clientele may not be the most truthful and caution should be warranted. In essence, a person who may be going through grief in the program could have other issues that may affect their judgement or perception.
Each person handles their grief differently. This can vary greatly when seen from a cultural aspect. Some cultures take withdraw within their group and relate only to family and loved ones while others suffer in silence and withdraw within themselves. Bonanno, Papa and O’Neill (2202) felt that when going through bereavement, how a person manages this situation can offer insight into their overall lifestyle. Knowing and learning about a culture or community that partakes into grief counseling can make a large difference in the success or improvement in the program. Even though some expectation of the participants may not or cannot be met by the program itself, respecting the individual and who they are, where they come from and their experiences should be given. Client’s define their issues stemming from their cultural aspects (ACA Code of Ethics, section E.5.b., 2014). In managing the grief program, these things and more should be considered. For example, looking at what the person may be feeling grief over may not be the loss of a person but could the loss of a relationship, a job or a transition in life. Understanding what they good of the community to be served should begin the process of what the program can provide, improve or do without.
To fully evaluate the program in regards to culture, the evaluator needs to have some sense of direction in where to begin. One thing that is needed is the age of the group involved whether facilitators or participants. This is important because there is a breakdown between the generations. Also, knowing the various cultures that are participants in the program. Culture does not mean just where someone come from or their ethnicity but the community in which a person resonates. Opinions and attitudes could pose conflict among the staff, the participant or both. Knowing the community around the location. There could people out there who are unaware of the services that could be provided, embarrassed coming forth or have prejudge what the services is about. Learn why there is an untapped population. Saltzman et al (2001) pointed out with the gang related violence, the exposure to the youth is consistently high even though the violence itself may have been seen to decrease. Youth may see that the program may not be for them and not seek the help and the assistance they need out prejudged notions but also the exposure itself could create other issues (Saltzman et al., 2001). Knowing that they are condition that could coincide with grief, brought on by the grief or escalated because the grief could be avenues the program may or may not be equipped handle. This information could bring a different perspective for the staff and be insightful to the evaluator as to how many of other issues could be present which could complicate the grief, the help needed, and the population participating and nonparticipating.
American Counseling Association (2014) 2014 ACA code of ethics. Retrieved from http://www.counseling.org/resources/aca-code-of-ethics-pdf.
American Evaluation Association. (2004). American Evaluation guiding principles for evaluators. Retrieved from http://www.eval.org/p/cm/ld/fid=51
Bonanno, G. A., Papa, A. & O’Neill (2002). Loss and human resilience. Applied & Preventive Psychology.10(1). 193-206.
Royse, D. Thayer, B.A., & Padgett, D. K. (2016). Program evaluation: An introduction to an evidence-based approach. (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Saltzman, W. R., Pynoos, R. S., Layne, C. M., Steinberg, A. M., & Aisenberg, E. (2001). Trauma-and grief-focused intervention for adolescents exposed to community violence: Results of a school-based screening and group treatment protocol. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 5(4), 291.
2nd Peer posting
Top of Form
The Children’s Center is for troubled children ages 10-18. This center is to help children that are depressed, has anxiety problems, ADHD, ADD or any other type of disorder that has caused them to have problems concentrating in school or causing harm to themselves.
Every program must make sure that the participants understand and receive an informed consent which explains the programs confidentiality, privacy, what is expected of each participant, and since this is a program for children legal consent will be required (American Counseling Association, 2014). With the participants being minors the counselors need to be aware of the differences of working with children versus adults. The counselors need to respect not only the participants but their families as well. The parents of the adolescents will want to be involved in what is going on with their child (American Evaluation Association, 2013). The parents and students that are referred need to know that they are not required to participate in the program, that this is an option for them to use but is not required and they will not be held reliable for refusing the program. This is a normal concern by anyone that may be referred to any program. This is just an option for the students that are having a hard time in school or that may be going through a difficult time in their life, something out of the normal or if they are taking the situation harder than the average adolescent.
Are the intended services being delivered to the intended persons? Do particular groups find the services problematic because of their cultural values or practices?
In order to know if the participants are receiving the services they need, the counselor will do an intake interview to make sure they receive the service they need. Parents will need to be involved or give permission to allow the adolescent to do a quiz and interview. “Minors cannot give informed consent without permission from their parents or legal guardians” (Rouse, Thyer, & Padgett, 2016). For a minor to participate in any form of quiz such as antisocial or self-incriminating behavior and psychological problems the counselor must have a written consent (Rouse, Thyer, & Padgett, 2016).
Any type of group must be “obliged to be culturally sensitive when members of ethnic or other diverse groups are involved” (Rouse, Thyer, & Padgett, 2016). The counselor needs to understand the different types of cultures, what is a norm and what the beliefs are of the that culture. The group is not allowed to refuse anyone due to their minority group without cause. All documentation needs to be carefully translated into their language (Rouse, Thyer, & Padgett, 2016).
Are there needy but unserved persons the program is not reaching? What is known about these unserved persons and why the program is not reaching them?
The students are referred to the program, they come from the local school. For the students that attend school out of the county, they may not have a program that is like this in their area. The program is willing to take any adolescent that is referred to the program however, the parents will need to provide transportation. The program is shared by teachers, counselors and any other community member that has helped in funding the program.
Once in service, do clients complete service? Who drops out, and why? Do particular groups drop out more often than other groups? Could this mean that the services are not sensitive to their cultural needs?
When a client leaves the program, the counselors will provide an exit interview. This includes a questionnaire that the parents of the participants will assist them in completing. By doing this interview the counselor will be able to see if the adolescent will need further monitoring when they leave the program. The participant will be dropped from the program if they do not participate in the program, if they choose to leave at their own will or if the counselor feels they might be ready. The counselor will talk to the adolescent and the parents to see how they feel, no one will be forced to leave if they are not comfortable in leaving the program unless they are not participating. Everyone is treated fairly and their culture is being respected. If there is a problem with an individual being offended by either a student or counselor/volunteer, that individual will be talked to in order to teach them the proper way to respect each culture.
American Counseling Association. (2014). 2014 ACA code of ethics. Retrieved from http://www.counseling.org/resources/aca-code-of-ethics.pdf
American Evaluation Association. (2004). American Evaluation Association guiding principles for evaluators. Retrieved from http://www.eval.org/p/cm/ld/fid=51
Royse, D., Thyer, B. A., & Padgett, D. K. (2016). Program evaluation: An introduction to an evidence-based approach (6th ed.).