– 5 points The temperature and surface area for six stars (A – F) are given in the table below.

Ranking instructions: Rank the luminosity of the stars (A – F) from greatest (brightest) to least (dimmest).

Ranking Order: Greatest 1 ____ 2 ____ 3 ____ 4 _____ 5 _____ 6 _____ Least

Or, all the stars have the same luminosity. _____ (Indicate with a check mark)

Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way.

Q2. – 2 points

You are building a space telescope. Should you invest your money in a smaller telescope with adaptive optics, or forget the adaptive optics and get a bigger telescope for the same amount of money? Carefully explain your reasoning.

Q3 – 3 points

How did Aristarchus determine, that the Sun is much larger than the Earth?

Q4 – 2 points

Why did Greek proponents of the geocentric model had to introduce epicycles?

Q5 – 3 points

What observation of Galileo proved that the geocentric model of the solar system was wrong? Why could this observation not have been made before Galileo’s time?

Q6 – 5 points

The figure below shows a star and five orbiting planets (A – E). Note that planets A, B and C are in perfectly circular orbits. In contrast, planets D and E have more elliptical orbits. Note that the closest and farthest distances for the elliptical orbits of planets D and E happen to match the orbital distances of planets A, B, and C as shown in the figure.

Ranking Instructions: Rank the orbital period (from longest to shortest) of the planets.

Ranking Order: Longest 1 ___ 2 ____ 3 ____ 4 ____ 5 ____ Shortest

Or, the orbital periods of the planets would all be the same. ________ (Indicate with check mark).

Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way:

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